Satellite contains communications system which receives signals and retransmits them using a transponder. It has an integrated system comprising of a receiver and a transmitter of radio signals. The satellite communication systems consist of antennas and transponders, which are used to transmit back signals received from Earth. The satellite has its own propulsion which uses the power system with solar panels, to position itself to the orbital location.
There is a two-way communication link between the Tracking Telemetry and Control (TT&C) system of a satellite and Tracking Telemetry and Control on the earth surface. The station on the ground controls systems of the satellite by tracking its position. Communication satellites range from microsatellites to large satellites. Modern satellites have ability to use digital compression technology with super transponders capable of capturing about 16 channels. One modern satellite like remote office telephone can provide more than 1,600 TV channels. Satellite communication has a wide range of applications. For example, it is applied in; mining and mineral exploration, construction, and satellite phones.
Satellite communication in mining and mineral exploration
The multispectral sensors in satellites are capable of viewing the Earth surface structure in a manner that human eye cannot. These multispectral sensors have installed shortwave technology, infrared, near-infrared, and thermal infrared. They have the ability to determine petrology and texture of earth’s surface at great heights. This enables them to locate, map and analyze composition of earth’s surface. This technology has been extended to creating imagery along different wavelengths, to identify the structure of rock underneath earth’s crust. This technology is being used to locate mining areas, land boundaries, and agricultural areas.
This technology provided by companies has replaced the era of using aerial photography in identifying geographical features that are interfaced with potential mining finds. Satellite imagery interpretation enables mineral exploration using the data acquired from the digital maps. Specialists in Litho-structural Interpretation and Mineral Mapping are able to identify the fields with targeted mineral sites. These specialists use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) obtained through Geographic Positioning Systems (GPS) to identify and analyze locations of mineral sites.
Satellite communication in construction
Digital imagery with sufficient resolution is used in constructions such as pipelines, railway lines, and buildings. The sensors of satellites capture images with varied spectral resolutions that allow easy differentiation of features on the earth’s surface. The geospatial experts including Physical Planners use the digitized maps to come up with a spatial plan for the intended construction. Industries of Engineering, architectural, and construction use satellite imagery to obtain comprehensive view of a site and the surrounding features. The digitally collected imagery has advantage of data storage. There’s no data loss, and information covers a large area compared to aerial photography. It also provides updates of the site after every few days.
Satellite communication in satellite phone
A satellite phone is also known as Statphone. This type of phone has been made in such a way that it connects with orbiting satellites other than common terrestrial signals of radio waves. It functions similar to terrestrial phones, only difference is that it uses satellite in its operation. These phones have different makes, which may include coverage of the entire Earth, or only for a particular region on earth’s surface. They are of great usage since they capture more information on the Earth surface.
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